The most force goes in the direction of the connecting rod. The longer this is, compared with the stroke, the less oblique it is at maximum deflection. This is favorable for the lateral forces but unfavorable for the engine height. The lateral forces by the way, are stongest, when the connecting rod and crank throw form a right angle. From the force acting e.g., on the connecting rod, one can, using various trigonometric functions, calculate the force on the connecting rod bearing, and thus the torque on the crankshaft.

F · sin( + )

F_{T} =

cos

F_{T} · cos

F =

sin( + )

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