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## History of Information Technology

Informatics (Computer science) = Information + Automatic

 1100 v. Chr. Abacus (mechanical arithmetic aid) v. 1800 Binary figure system, Pascal (1623-1662) and Leibnitz (1646-1716) 1823 - 1833 Idea of a digital arithmetic machine (Charles Babbage) 1815 - 1864 The arithmetic work of the computer is built up from logical basic circuits. The basis for these circuits forms the statement logic developed by the English mathematician George Boole, also called Bool algebra. This statement logic was intended originally to pose philosophical problems with only two statements as comprehensive mathematical formulation. Boole assigned the signs "1 and "0" to the statements "true" and "false". Booles statement logic formed a century later the basis of the digital switch logic (informatics). 1843 Copy telegraph - fax (Bain, Scotland) 1875 Photo-electric selenium cell (Siemens, Germany) 1886 Electromechanical classifying and countable machine (Hollerith, the US) 1939 Relay computer with program control (Zuse, Germany) 1942 First functioning computer in tube technology (Atanasoff) 1944 First program controlled computer (Aiken, the US) and Z4 also (Zuse, Germany) 1945 Electronic numerical Integrator And computer, fully-electronic computer (Eckert, Mauchly, the US) 1948 Transistor (Shockley, the US),Computer of the company IBM, remote control (the US) 1949 Light pen, English Lightpen (Massachusetts institutes of Technology) 1951 Transistors on the market (the US) 1954 Transistor from silicon 1955 Transistor computer (Felker, the US) 1957 Digital Equipment Corporation (Olsen, Anderson, US) 1959 Integrated Circuit (Noyce, Kilby, US) 1960 Common Business Orientated Language (USA), List Processing Language (USA) 1963 digital processing of pictures (Gregg, the US) 1967 Radio clock (Hilberg, Germany), electronic calculator with printer (Texas of dash, the US) 1968 Introduction of the integrated switching circuit (IC), Liquid Crystal Display (RCA, the US), Centronics (parallel interface, Wang-Laboratories) 1969 Pascal (ETA, Zurich), ARPA net (precursor of the Internet, the US), Sanders association, later: Advanced Micro Devices (Sanders, Turney, chip manufacturers, the US) 1970 Microprocessor (Texas Instruments, the US), Dynamic Random Access memory (Intel, the US), Smalltalk (Xerox, Palo Alto, the US), Sructured Query Language (Codd, the US) 1971 Silicone Valley, valley southeast of San Francisco (Hoefler), microcomputer models 4004 (2300 transistors, Intel) and 6502 (Motorola), laser printer (Starkweather, Xerox Parc, the US), ink-jet printers (Casio, J) 1972 Intel 8008, Texas Instruments T1000 (processor for electronic calculator), 5 1/4-inch disks, video game (Atari) 1973 Operating system CP/M, computer with mouse / Graphic user interface, quantity production electronic calculator (US), accumulator-programmed control (Siemens, Germany), beginning of the Ethernet development ('ether network', Metcalfe, the US) 1974 Motorola 68.000, Intel 8080 1975 Founding of Microsoft by Bill Gates (19) and Paul Allen 1976 6502 (MOS technology), founding of Apple computer by Stephen Jobs and Steve Wozniak, Apple I, Structured Query Language (IBM) 1977 Zilog Z80, Tandy TRS 80, Apple II 1978 8086, Basis of today´s Pentium (Intel, the US) 1979 Compact Disc Read Only memory (Sony, Philips), Intel 8088, word processing (Word star), Small computer system interface (Shugart Technology), table calculation (VisiCalc) 1980 Robot manufacturing begins, Homecomputer (e.g., Sinclair ZX80), OS 9 - real-time operating system (Microware, the US) 1981 Hard disk, personal computer, 8088, 4.77 MHz, 29,000 transistors (IBM, the US), VC 20 (Commodore), Music dash Digitally interface (Smith, the US) 1982 Intel 286 (100,000 transistors, the US), Sun Microsystems (from home Bechtols, the US), Commodore C64 (till 1987 more than 10 million copies sold), IBM-Compatible, laptop ('lap computer', Epson, the US), MP3 - compression of audiodata (Fraunhofer institute, Germany) 1983 IBM PC XT, 256 MBit chips (Siemens, Germany), graphic operating surface (Lisa, Apple), Apple IIe 1984 first Emails in Germany, Mainframe-Computer (IBM, the US), Apple-Macintosh 1985 32-bit microprocessor 80386 (Intel, the US), Windows (Microsoft), notebook ('notebook', Toshiba, J) 1986 Centrum for office and information technology (fair in Hannover), 80486 integrates Coprozessor (Intel, the US), the first 'de-Domain' possible, theory of the quantum computer (In German) 1988 Quantum computer (still low efficiency), Cyrix founded 1989 W3 protocol (Berniers Lee, GB), MS office for Mac (Microsoft, the US), Integrated service Digitally Network, Compact Disc ROM specification (Philips, Sony, Microsoft) 1991 Opening of the Internet, WWW and HTML standard (Geneva, Ch), development Java (Sun, the US), LINUX, free Unix operating system (Linus Torvalds, F), MS office for Windows, Visual BASIC (Microsoft, the US), Ethernet on Twisted Pair (Institute of Electrial and Electronical Engineers) 1992 Alpha, RISC processor of DEC, Windows 3.1, Object Linking and Embedding 1.0 (Microsoft, the US), Cx486SLC (Cyrix, the US), Operating system 2 (IBM still with Microsoft, the US), Peripheral Component Interconnect bus standard (Intel, the US), neuro computers 1993 Worldwide Positioning system released (GPS), Intel parallel processor Pentium (3 million transistors, the US), net cape browsers (Andreessen, the US), Windows NT (Microsoft, the US), Newton (Apple, the US), portable Document format (Adobe, the US) 1994 Novell DOS 7.0, Pentium computers with PCI bus, PS/2-SIMM, Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics (western Digital, the US), FDIV bug in Pentium, Virtual Reality Modeling Language 1.0 1995 K6 microprocessor (AMD, the US), 6x86 (Cyrix, the US), Power Mac, Java (Sun, the US), HTML (Hyper text Markup Language) 2.0, Windows and office 95 (successor 3.1), 486 in Mac, Digital Versatile Disc standard, Pentium successor P6, Pascal successor Delphi (Borland, the US), Mac with PCI bus (Apple, the US), netscape navigator 2.0, Javascript, Java (Sun Microsystems, the US) 1996 Universal Serial bus (Intel, the US), Pentium 6 (Intel, the US), CD-RW (Philips, Sony etc.), Windows CE for Handhelds, OS/2 Warp 4 (IBM alone) 1997 Pentium MMX (Intel, the US), Google, HTML 3.2 1998 AMD K6, HTML 4.0, Windows 98 (successor 95) 1999 Pentium 3, 28 million transistors, 512 kByte Cache (Intel, the US), DVD burner, Internet Explorer overhauls netscape navigator 2000 GPS released with maximum pixels, Intel Pentium 4 (42 million transistors, the US), USB 2.0, MMX technology with multimedia, VIA Cyrix III, Windows ME (successor 98), Windows 2000 (successor NT) 2001 Windows XP successor to Windows 98 and in 2000, current saving Crusoe processor (Transmeta, the US) 2003 Athlon 64, 106 million transistors (AMD, the US) 2006 Unclocked processor with particularly low power consumption (ARM, the US), end of OS/2 (IBM) 2007 Windows Vista (successor XP) 2008 Gates leaves Microsoft, Windows 7, Support Netscape Navigator set, Palm Treo 2009 Palm Pre

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