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Video History-Suspension 1
Video History-Suspension 2
Video History-Suspension 3
Video History-Suspension 4
Video History-Suspension 5
Video History-Suspension 6
Video History-Suspension 7

Video Undercarriage 1
Video Undercarriage 2
Video Steering Wheel 1
Video Steering Wheel 2
Video Steering Lock
Video Steering
Video Safety Steering
Video Rack Pinion Steering
Video Steering Ratio 1
Video Steering Ratio 2
Video Steering Ratio 3
Video Ball Steering
Video Worm Roller Steering
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Video Electr. Power Steer. 1
Video Electr. Power Steer. 2
Video Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Video Torque (power steer.)
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video Finger Steering
Video One-piece Track Rod
Video Four Wheel Steering 1
Video Four Wheel Steering 2
Video Four Wheel Steering 3
Video Dry Joint
Video History
Video Suspension control 1
Video Wheel positions
Video Suspension
Video Spring systems
Video Electr. Air Suspension
Video Center of Gravity
Video Oblique/lateral drift angle
Video Elasto-kinematics
Video Elk Test
Video Wheel Bearing 1
Video Wheel Bearing 2
Video Wheel Bearing 3
Video Wheel Bearing 4
Video Ind. pulse sensor
Video Wheel sensor 2
Video Transversal Axis
Video Suspension Carrier
Video Below View
Video Adj. suspension
Video Stabilizer 1
Video Stabilizer 2
Video Double-wishbone 1
Video Double-wishbone 2
Video Double-wishbone 3
Video Air suspension truck
Video McPherson Strut 1
Video McPherson Strut 2
Video McPherson Strut 3
Video McPherson Strut 4
Video Trailing Arm
Video Twist-beam Rear Axle
Video Space Arms
Video Multilink Axle
Video Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Video Rear-wheel Drive
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
Video One-arm Swing. Fork
Video Formula-3 Racing Car
Video Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Video Torson Crank Suspen.
Video DeDion Axle 1
Video DeDion Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 1
Video Rigid Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 3
Video Rigid Axle 4
Video Rigid Axle 5
Video Self steering axle
Video Track rod joint
Video Springs
Video Coil Spring 1
Video Coil Spring 2
Video Coil Spring 3
Video Leaf Spring
Video Torsion Bar Spring
Video Rubber Suspension
Video Hydropn. Suspension
Video Air Suspension 1
Video Air Suspension 2
Video Shock Absorber 1
Video Shock Absorber 2
Video Shock Absorber 3
Video Shock Absorber 4
Video Shock Absorber 5
Video Single-tube Damper 1
Video Single Tube Damper 2
Video Double-tube Damper
Video Shock Absorber Piston
Video Friction Absorber
Video Tyres
Video Wheel Positions

Video Tyre Calculation
Video Inch -> mm
Video Slip
Video Axle Load Distrib.
Video Payload Distrib.
Video Roller Resistance 2

Video Wheel suspension 1
Video Wheel suspension 2
Video Wheels 1
Video Suspension 1
Video Suspension 2
Video Suspension 5
Video Steering 1
Video Steering 2

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Rigid Axle

Primarily for heavyweights, keeping track and camber consistent

Even the first Ferrari featured a leaf-spring mounted rigid axle. Even the up-to-date model of the Ford Mustang has it. This design is exceptional for passenger cars though. It is used primarily, for (town) busses and other heavy utility vehicles. These vehicles mostly have a chassis (ladder-type frame) in which the axis can be integrated relatively simply and at a reasonable price. For heavy vehicles there is hardly an alternative to the rigid axle. It connects the wheels of an axis and holds the track and the camber consistent. This easy and stable construction is also suitable as a rear axle for front-wheel drive vehicles (figure 5) because of lower non-sprung masses. Real cross-country vehicles often feature a rigid axle because the axes interlock range is wider ('X' form).

Forged to form a fist or fork

Figure 4 shows a not driven, rigid rear axle, this time not combined with leaf springs , but with an air suspension. If one side is engaged, the opposite wheel is influenced. Rigid front axles make use of just one-pieced tie rods. The rigid part ends in case of non-driven axes in a fist, and for driven ones in a fork. Consequently, the name of the design. Figure 6 shows the production process of the pre-forge up to the state ready for installation.

Driven rigid axle tramples, only DeDion does not.

A driven rigid axle (figure 3) has large non-sprung masses, the final drive, the axle drive shafts (full-floating axles) and half the cardan shaft. It inclines to trampling and damps well only with a lot of sprung masses (e.g., trucks). The final drive of the De Dion rear axle and the cardan shaft are fastened completely to the vehicle floor and they are connected to the rear wheels through axle drive shafts. Through this rather costly expenditure, the advantages of the rigid axle (consistent track and camber) are preserved without having the disadvantages of the large non-sprung masses. With all other driven axes (independent suspension) drive shafts from the final drive to the wheels are necessary.

Guide by triangle, trailing arm, Panhard rod

If rigid axles are not combined with leaf springs, e.g., with the aerial-sprung truck (figure 4), special guiding elements are necessary. In addition trailing arms can be mounted on both sides, one on top and another one below, to take up the tilting moment of the axis during the initial drive and braking. Also, precautions are in place against lateral running off of the axis. Figure 4 on top displays especially stable trailing arms. Alternatively a triangular wishbone (figure 7) in the middle, a Panhard rod, or a Watt linage. 12/08               Top of page               Index
2001-2015 Copyright programs, texts, animations, pictures: H. Huppertz - E-Mail
Translator: Don Leslie - Email:

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