|Side Valves||Camshaft lying below in the block,|
2 valves in the side of the block
|Over Head Valves||Camshaft lying below in the block, 2 - 5 valves in the cylinder head(valve-disc downwards)|
|Over Head Camshaft||Overhead cam(s)|
lying in the cylinder head
|Single Over Head Camshaft||Single cam lying|
in the cylinder head
|Double Over Head Camshaft||Twin-cam lying|
in the cylinder head
|Overhead valve||Valve in the cylinder head, valve-disc nearer to the piston than the valve shaft |
|Side valve||Valve in the side of the cylinder block, valve-disc upwards, valve shaft downwards |
The camshaft should open the valves at the right time, lifting them an exact amount and in a precisely determined sequence and make it possible for them to be closed again through the valve
spring. The modern camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through gearwheels, timing belt or timing chain. In all cases, there is a transmission ratio of 2 : 1. Thus, the camshaft rotates only half as fast as the
|Engine control: through shape and adjustment of the cams|
A distinction is made between overhead- and side valves. In the case of the OVH-control, the camshaft is installed in the bottom of the engine block. The valves however, do their job in the cylinder head and are thus
called overhead valves. The camshaft causes the valves to move through pushrods and cam followers. Because when the valves close and
more components have to be
moved back by the valve spring, higher RPM is not possible, side-valve engines are nowadays, only found the large volume (USA) V8-motor car-engines and in truck-engines.
One, or two lie horizontally in the cylinder head and are driven through rocker-arms, cam followers or directly through tappets. The timing can, through either a mechanical- or a hydraulic
adjustment be changed according to the engine speed.
The camshafts are made from cast iron, nodular cast iron, tempered steel or nitrided steel. They can be either cast or hollow-bored to save weight. Their bearings and the cam-paths are mostly surface-hardened.
Camshafts can also be assembled from individual parts. Thereby, the cams and the bearings are pressed into their exact position through very high (water) pressure and then fixed. In contrast to the one-piece
components, the cams can then be made from sintered material. The advantages are, lower production costs and weight-saving. 01/12