Here, once again, the steam-pressure curve of water can be seen. What interests us right now, are the areas outside of between 0°C and 100°C. As a basic explanation, below the curve water remains in a liquid
state, however, only as far down as 0°C. At temperatures to the left of the curve, water turns to ice.
Above this curve, water always takes on a gaseous form, i.e., it turns into steam. If one could manage to generate a vacuum of 0,01 bar (10 hPa) at -20°C, one would have steam, which would abruptly turn to ice if the
pressure were to be increased.
The other side of the curve rises up to more than 1 bar (1.000 hPa). Thus, if the pressure is increased to above normal, water could be kept in a liquid state. Particularly in the automobile field there is one good
example, the positive-pressure cooling. In this case, the cooling system is kept under pressure, so that one can still cool with
water which has a temperature of nearly 120°C.
The background to this: Todays engines make higher temperatures possible through the choice of certain materials and show their appreciation e.g., by providing a somewhat higher efficiency, which amounts to a
lower fuel consumption. The disadvantage is: If e.g., because of a defect, the positive pressure cannot be maintained, the water dissipates as steam with a temperature of 100°C and the engine is not sufficiently