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Mobiles F9


Wheel change
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Tyres 1
Tyres 2


History of Wheels 1
History of Wheels 2
History of Wheels 3
History of Wheels 4
History of Wheels 5
History of Wheels 6

Wheel changing
Tyre label
History Sec. Wheels
Winter Tyre
Snow Chains
All-weather Tyres
Where to mount newtyres?
Radial Ply Tyre
Cross-ply Tyre
Tyre fitting
Additional information
Wheel Balancing
Bus Wheel Balancing
Tyre Production 1
Tire Production 2
Wheel Load Limits
Roller Reststance 1
Emergency Running 1
Emergency Running 2
Tyre Press. Control 1
Tyre Control 2
Tyre Press. Control 3

Rims 1 -

Rims 2 -

Alloy Rim (production)
Rims 4 - forged
Low Cross-section
Drop-center Rim
Spoked wheel
Rim Hump
Rim (truck)
Emergency Wheel
Wheel Positions
Wheel Base
Steering Offset
Steering axis incl.
Wheel Alignment
Relative Steering Angle
Obl./Side slip angle
Axle Alignment 1
Axle Alignment 2
Axle Alignment 3

Radial-ply Tyres

First development of the radial tyre go back to the year 1948, when Michelin achieved under the keyword 'X-technology' about twice the life of a conventional double-ply tyre. The radial-ply tyre combines a relatively hard, low resistance tread with a more flexible side-wall. The advantages can be easily recognised if one has a look at a train wheel, the friction is so low, that if, when driving on a level track at, e.g., 160 km/h, the motor is switched off, over a distance of 40 kms the train only loses 20 km/h of speed. However, a steel wheel, on a suitable rail, particularly when wet, also needs a terribly long braking distance. This means that one may not exaggerate the hardening.

Rayon-cord is applied radially, from beading to beading. In addition, the tread is reinforced by two to three layers of vulcanised steel wire. They form a solid belt - hence the description radial-ply (belted) tyre. The (thread-) angle between the material and the steel wiring is, in the case of radial-ply tyres, particularly obtuse, about 90°. Especially light-weight radial-ply tyres are produced with thinner side-walls and with synthetic layers instead of steel belts.

The advantages over diagonal-or cross-ply-tyres are:
- lower rolling resistance,
- lower fuel consumption,
- better cornering,
- better braking- and acceleration properties.

A disadvantage is, that the comfort suffers a little because the tyre is harder. For a class of vehicles, the principle of the radial tyre is problematic, the motorcycles. It need parts of the sidewalls at lean angles in the curve. Therefore here the diagonal-ply tire has survived for a longer time, was then replaced by a special design that allows a curved surface differing from the car tyre.