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History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Steering Wheel 1
Steering Wheel 2
Steering Lock
Safety Steering
Rack Pinion Steering
Steering Ratio 1
Steering Ratio 2
Steering Ratio 3
Ball Steering
Worm Roller Steering
Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Electr. Power Steer. 1
Electr. Power Steer. 2
Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Torque (power steer.)
Electr. Stab. Program
Finger Steering
One-piece Track Rod
Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Wheel positions
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elk Test
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4
Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 2
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
Air suspension truck
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4
Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5
Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Shock Absorber 1
Shock Absorber 2
Shock Absorber 3
Shock Absorber 4
Shock Absorber 5
Single-tube Damper 1
Single Tube Damper 2
Double-tube Damper
Shock Absorber Piston
Friction Absorber
Wheel Positions

Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Wheels 1
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2


Semi-trailing Arm Axle


The semi-trailing arm suspension should precisely guide the rear wheels, independently of each other with cast, forged or from steel-plate manufactured elements. The steering axles of these elements are neither parallel to the longitudinal- nor to the transverse axis of the vehicle.


The rear wheels are guided by wide arms. These are attached to the springs (mostly coil-springs) and the shock absorbers. The rear view (picture above) and the top view (picture below) of the swivel-axle arms show their slanted position. The one seen from the top is more distinct and provides for negative camber when the springs are compressed or when they rebound. The slanting position seen from the rear emphasises this effect when compressing, and weakens it in equal measure when rebounding. Because the final drive is bolted to the vehicle floor, to reduce the unsprung mass, as in all independent suspensions, universal joints to the wheels are necessary. Trailing arms are found with driven rear axles.


The wide construction requires a great deal of space. However, because in modern rear-wheel drive vehicles, the fuel tank is mounted in front of the rear axle, (under the rear seats) a lot of space is no longer available. Apart from that, the resonant steering behaviour of the rear axle when the springs are compressed, is only slightly changeable. This is why the relevance of the semi-trailing arm axle is decreasing more and more.