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History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Steering Wheel 1
Steering Wheel 2
Steering Lock
Safety Steering
Rack Pinion Steering
Steering Ratio 1
Steering Ratio 2
Steering Ratio 3
Ball Steering
Worm Roller Steering
Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Electr. Power Steer. 1
Electr. Power Steer. 2
Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Torque (power steer.)
Electr. Stab. Program
Finger Steering
One-piece Track Rod
Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Wheel positions
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elk Test
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4
Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 2
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
Air suspension truck
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4
Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5
Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Shock Absorber 1
Shock Absorber 2
Shock Absorber 3
Shock Absorber 4
Shock Absorber 5
Single-tube Damper 1
Single Tube Damper 2
Double-tube Damper
Shock Absorber Piston
Friction Absorber
Wheel Positions

Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Wheels 1
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2



A simple test for cars with an extremely dropped suspension
One makes two spacers, e,g., from wood and with their help, one holds a perectly normal spirit-level on the top- and bottom parts of the rim-flange (front wheel). Ask a few friends now, to carefully press down on the respective mudguard, the wheel must take a negative camber (the top goes inwards), this can be seen by the bubble in the spirit-level. Should this not be the case, then the dropped suspension is worse than the standard. Should the mudguard hardly move downwards at all, then instead of expensive shock absorbers, one might as well have used iron bars.


The suspension should ensure that as much of the surface of the tyre-tread as possible should be in contact with the road. Apart from that, it should also ensure that uncontrollable situations for the driver are avoided.


Rigid axles are still generally used in trucks and off-road vehicles, whereby, the wheels of one axle are connected to each other then together are mounted onto the frame. Passenger cars nearly always have independent suspension. The wheels have, independent of each other, individual springs and shock absorbers and they are guided by transverse links, trailing arms, semi-trailing arms or multiple trailing arms. As far as the motorcycle is concerned, the banking, and thereby, the braking- and thrust forces when cornering are especially important.
Travelling in a straight line, despite the angled front wheels (inclination angle greater on the front than on the rear), is called understeer, the breaking out of the rear is called oversteer. In both cases the axle with better road contact should, in favour of a more neutral handling, slightly worsen (for a short time) if possible.
For the constructor, the best conditions are present, when the unsprung mass, compared with the sprung mass, is as low as possible. This is the reason, why the application of aluminium in parts of the suspension is doubly advantageous. 02/09

Suspension test ...