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Video History-Suspension 1
Video History-Suspension 2
Video History-Suspension 3
Video History-Suspension 4
Video History-Suspension 5
Video History-Suspension 6
Video History-Suspension 7

Video Undercarriage 1
Video Undercarriage 2
Video Steering Wheel 1
Video Steering Wheel 2
Video Steering Lock
Video Steering
Video Safety Steering
Video Rack Pinion Steering
Video Steering Ratio 1
Video Steering Ratio 2
Video Steering Ratio 3
Video Ball Steering
Video Worm Roller Steering
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Video Electr. Power Steer. 1
Video Electr. Power Steer. 2
Video Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Video Torque (power steer.)
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video Finger Steering
Video One-piece Track Rod
Video Four Wheel Steering 1
Video Four Wheel Steering 2
Video Four Wheel Steering 3
Video Dry Joint
Video History
Video Suspension control 1
Video Wheel positions
Video Suspension
Video Spring systems
Video Electr. Air Suspension
Video Center of Gravity
Video Oblique/lateral drift angle
Video Elasto-kinematics
Video Elk Test
Video Wheel Bearing 1
Video Wheel Bearing 2
Video Wheel Bearing 3
Video Wheel Bearing 4
Video Ind. pulse sensor
Video Wheel sensor 2
Video Transversal Axis
Video Suspension Carrier
Video Below View
Video Adj. suspension
Video Stabilizer 1
Video Stabilizer 2
Video Double-wishbone 1
Video Double-wishbone 2
Video Double-wishbone 3
Video Air suspension truck
Video McPherson Strut 1
Video McPherson Strut 2
Video McPherson Strut 3
Video McPherson Strut 4
Video Trailing Arm
Video Twist-beam Rear Axle
Video Space Arms
Video Multilink Axle
Video Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Video Rear-wheel Drive
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
Video One-arm Swing. Fork
Video Formula-3 Racing Car
Video Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Video Torson Crank Suspen.
Video DeDion Axle 1
Video DeDion Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 1
Video Rigid Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 3
Video Rigid Axle 4
Video Rigid Axle 5
Video Self steering axle
Video Track rod joint
Video Springs
Video Coil Spring 1
Video Coil Spring 2
Video Coil Spring 3
Video Leaf Spring
Video Torsion Bar Spring
Video Rubber Suspension
Video Hydropn. Suspension
Video Air Suspension 1
Video Air Suspension 2
Video Shock Absorber 1
Video Shock Absorber 2
Video Shock Absorber 3
Video Shock Absorber 4
Video Shock Absorber 5
Video Single-tube Damper 1
Video Single Tube Damper 2
Video Double-tube Damper
Video Shock Absorber Piston
Video Friction Absorber
Video Tyres
Video Wheel Positions

Video Tyre Calculation
Video Inch -> mm
Video Slip
Video Axle Load Distrib.
Video Payload Distrib.
Video Roller Resistance 2

Video Wheel suspension 1
Video Wheel suspension 2
Video Wheels 1
Video Suspension 1
Video Suspension 2
Video Suspension 5
Video Steering 1
Video Steering 2

          A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Tie-rod End

In the motor vehicle area, the ball-joint was responsible for quiet revolutions, of course, out of sight, under the car bodywork. At the birth of the motor car, there were no ball-ends which could be reliably held by a socket. Apparently it's not that simple to machine a surface to last an entire working life with one precisely limited grease filling.

It all started before the motor car, with the production of ball-bearings for bicycles. In this case also, it all comes down to absolute roundness and the use of certain tricks in the assembly of bearings. In the motor car, the first ball-joints appeared on the tie-rod ends. Drive shafts still have long universal joints.

They were always bolts in bushings, first of all, without- and then fitted with needle bearings which are susceptible to failure and require servicing. The front-wheel drive had to wait a long time before it got ball joints which could transfer the torque under all conditions homogeneously. The first ones wore out very rapidly.

It quickly became clear that the sealing also played an important role. Then, roughly in the seventies, the outdated kingpins were replaced by a ball-head at the top and at the bottom (see figure 3). More than thirty years later, this would still be the case in bus front axles, on which the demands are far higher.

Figure 1 above shows an older tie-rod joint where one can still imagine what the production and assembly was like. The ball and also the ball-head part which faces the rubber, have to be particularly resistant to wear-and-tear. In this case it was mounted from the other side and securely sealed through a strong cap with a partly beaded edge.

The cap is pressed by a strong spring onto the ball-head which enables, free of play, movement in almost all directions. Still today, a cone is joined to the ball-head holding this joint together, even without a nut. As can of course be seen, someone intentionally mounted the castle-nut the wrong way round and then secured it with a split-pin.

If, by tightening the castle-nut, the cone is firmly clamped to the steering arm, one would best use a ball-joint extracting tool for removing it. It engages with the (not visible here) opening between the steering arm and the tie-rod end, by screwing down the threading, eventually the cone is levered apart.

Previously, without an extracting tool, this job was sometimes done quite grossly, using a heavy counter-brace (hammer) and knocking with a lighter hammer on the grommet, this caused the cone to eventually spring apart. Indeed, one misguided hammer blow meant that a new seal was necessary. 01/10               Top of page               Index
2001-2015 Copyright programs, texts, animations, pictures: H. Huppertz - E-Mail
Translator: Don Leslie - Email:

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