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History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Steering Wheel 1
Steering Wheel 2
Steering Lock
Steering 1
Steering 2
Safety Steering
Rack Pinion Steering
Steering Ratio 1
Steering Ratio 2
Steering Ratio 3
Ball Steering
Worm Roller Steering
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Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Electr. Power Steer. 1
Electr. Power Steer. 2
Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Torque (power steer.)
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Finger Steering
One-piece Track Rod
Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Wheel positions
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Center of Gravity
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Elk Test
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4
Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 1
Wheel sensor 2
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Stabilizer 3
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
Air suspension truck
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4
Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5

Self steering axle
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Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
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Rubber Suspension
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Air Suspension 2
Shock Absorber 1
Shock Absorber 2
Shock Absorber 3
Shock Absorber 4
Shock Absorber 5
Single-tube Damper 1
Single Tube Damper 2
Double-tube Damper
Shock Absorber Piston
Friction Absorber
Wheel Positions

Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Suspension 3
Suspension 4
Suspension 5
Suspension 6
Suspension 7
Suspension 8
Suspension 9
Suspension 10
Suspension 11
Suspension 12
Suspension 13
Suspension 14
Wheels 1
Wheels 2
Wheels 3
Wheels 4
Wheels 5
Wheels 6
Wheels 7
Wheels 8
Wheels 9
Wheels 10
Wheels 11
Wheels 12
Wheels 13
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 3
Carriage 4
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2
Steering 3
Steering 4

Steering 2

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There haven't been all that many innovations concerning the steering geometry lately, apart from getting rid of the double-wishbone in favour of the two individual rods (four-link). In one of the below videos there is something, which at first glance, looks quite spectacular. Just have a look at the wheel-position when the steering is turned to maximum lock.

They maintain that an angle of 75 is possible and also a turning circle of 7 meters. This of course, is only feasible in a car with a short wheel-base. The question, whether such an extreme steering angle can even be realised in the compact car class, where front-wheel drive is of paramount importance, is left unanswered by the ZF company.

Somewhat conspicuous, are the plugs on the wheel-bearings, visible from the inside. Here, drive shafts could also be pushed through and bolted on. Indeed, which drive shaft can handle a diffraction of more than 45? Of course, the engineers at ZF also know this and have given the prototype wheel-hub motors in the rear.

The actual steering construction itself is less spectacular. The basis is a common, but filigree construction with triangular wishbones. However, mounted on the upper wishbone, is a rod which swivels to the front. At the half-way point, the tie-rod notches in and at the end a there is a further rod to the steering column stalk. Small steering actions are carried out at a low- larger actions at a higher ratio.

The question remains, wouldn't this also be possible with a direct connection from the tie-rod to the steering column stalk? Excess work on the steering wheel could be compensated for by using an active steering. Indeed, perhaps this construction is more reasonable for compact cars. By the way, the vehicle shown below has relatively narrow, 155 width tyres, this fits in well with the extreme incline of the wheels when cornering but makes it difficult to achieve the short braking distances required nowadays.

Now, a major supplier like ZF, is not going to be satisfied with a higher lock-to-lock steering angle and parking by Smartphone or smart watch. Once again, it's all about data, the data which arises during the trip. The system saves this data to a cloud and uses it for more safety, even without GPS. Should someone be cornering too fast on his/her way to work, the PreVision Cloud Assistant could give a warning or even intervene.

The possible switch-over to (partially) autonomous driving can occur through a button on the steering wheel (see picture). This is totally sensitive to touch. It can very quickly recognise that the car is to park itself automatically and request and show in the display, that the wheel is to be released. Vice versa, by touching the steering wheel again, one has, once more, control of the car oneself. 08/15

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