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History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Steering Wheel 1
Steering Wheel 2
Steering Lock
Safety Steering
Rack Pinion Steering
Steering Ratio 1
Steering Ratio 2
Steering Ratio 3
Ball Steering
Worm Roller Steering
Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Electr. Power Steer. 1
Electr. Power Steer. 2
Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Torque (power steer.)
Electr. Stab. Program
Finger Steering
One-piece Track Rod
Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Wheel positions
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elk Test
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4
Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 2
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
Air suspension truck
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4
Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5
Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Shock Absorber 1
Shock Absorber 2
Shock Absorber 3
Shock Absorber 4
Shock Absorber 5
Single-tube Damper 1
Single Tube Damper 2
Double-tube Damper
Shock Absorber Piston
Friction Absorber
Wheel Positions

Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Wheels 1
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2




The first car in the world had only one front wheel because the inventor had difficulties with the steering of two wheels, although the Ackermann steering, normal nowadays, had already been invented at the time of the carriage. It offered a lower tilting tendency at sharp steering angles compared with the single-pivot steering, which would also be too difficult to operate in a motor vehicle. With the axle-pivot steering, each of the two front wheels is guided by its own steering-swivel axle when cornering. so that it rolls on its circular path without having to cope with strong lateral forces.

How it works

The connection between both steering knuckle arms is brought about, in rigid front axles, (trucks) by one, and in independent suspension, by two or three tie rods. If together, these are a little shorter than the front axle, they form, together with the axle when driving in a straight line, a (steering) trapezoid. The curve-inside wheel is turned at a sharper angle than the curve-ouside wheel. To avoid track differences during spring compression, the outer tie-rods in a three part construction are configured to precisely the same length as the wishbone(s). The rotation of the steering wheel is transferred through a steering gearbox with a transmission ratio of 14-20:1 in the motor car, and substantially higher in trucks, to the tie rod(s).


In the event of a frontal accident, the steering wheel may only be pushed a certain distance towards the driver. In addition, the steering shaft is provided with a length of corrugated piping or a disengage mechanism or it is articulated through normally, two universal joints. This, in addition, makes the adjustable steering wheel possible. 08/06