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Wheel change
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Wheel Positions
Change Wheels

History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Damper 1 - generally
Damper 2 - single-tube
Damper 3 - notch
Damper 4 - double-tube
Damper 5 - piston
Damper 6 - electronic
Damper 7 - Magnetic Ride
Damper 8 - test
Damper 9 - test
Damper 10 - repair
Damper 11 - history

Steering 1 - generally
Steering 2 - city mode
Steering 3 - track rod
Steering 4 Rack Pinion
Steering 5 - ratio
Steering 6 - var. ratio
Steering 7 - by wire
Steering 8 - ball
Steering 9 - worm roller
Steering 10 - hydraulic
Steering 11 - hydraulic
Steering 12 - pump
Steering 13 - torque
Steering 14 - electric
Steering 15 - electric
Steering 16 - safety
Steering 17 - history

Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3

Steer. Wheel 1 - generally
Steer. Wheel 2 - buttons
Steer. Wheel 3 - lock

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Electr. Stab. Program
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elk Test
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4

Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 1
Wheel sensor 2

Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Stabilizer 3
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4

Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Air suspension truck
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5

DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Suspension 3
Suspension 4
Suspension 5
Suspension 6
Suspension 7
Suspension 8
Suspension 9
Suspension 10
Suspension 11
Suspension 12
Suspension 13
Suspension 14
Wheels 1
Wheels 2
Wheels 3
Wheels 4
Wheels 5
Wheels 6
Wheels 7
Wheels 8
Wheels 9
Wheels 10
Wheels 11
Wheels 12
Wheels 13
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 3
Carriage 4
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2
Steering 3
Steering 4

  Hydraulic Power Steering

Power steering should enable a relatively direct steering, with little effort. The feeling for the road surface, should however, still be maintained. The impact from uneven roads should not be transferred to the steering.

The best way to understand it, is to enlarge figure 2 to the max. From below, the steering column goes through the rack and pinion, to the two ball joints on the left and on the right. On the way to the right joint, a dividing piston is visible in the cut-open view. It separates the two working areas from each other. The right side contains hydraulic oil if the gear rack moves to the left, and thus, the steering to the right. At the same time the hydraulic oil in the left working area must be able to flow without pressure back into to the reservoir.

When steering to the left, the controller swaps the pressure pipe and the fuel return around. This can be seen immediately behind the universal joint in the steering column. You can even partially follow the two pipes to the working areas. The two connections to the hydraulic pump and to the container are open. Here, in the controller, it is decided whether, and which side receives support. This is triggered through the steering movement by the driver.

Now look at the diagram (figure 1). A high-pressure oil pump driven by the engine must be available. Here a double-action vane-type pump (on the right) is particularly suitable because of its constant high and continuous feed rate. Before entering into the steering gear a controller (details on top and on the left) is installed in the steering shaft. This becomes effective with the slightest turning of the steering wheel. depending on the rotation direction of the steering wheel, the side which supports a particular steering movement is activated.

In the recirculating-ball-hydro-steering there are two areas, sealed off from each other on both sides of the steering nut. Both can be alternatively, under pressure, or be connected with the reservoir in the flow-back. Thereby, lighter steering also becomes possible. At full steering angle, the pressure relief valve comes into action, thus protecting the oil pump against overloading. To increase the road-feeling, the supporting oil-pressure can be reduced with rising speed.

Even though the servo-valve and the oil circulation amount have been clearly reduced in the course of the development, a relatively high amount of effort is necessary for the installation of hydraulic power steering. After all, a pump with a constant drive exists in the engine, which complicates a modular construction method. In addition, every small steering movement causes the consumption of support energy. Alternatively, some manufacturers install an electric power steering. 08/07