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Thermodynamics 4

Here we have it again, the warming-up process of water. On the left of the diagram, coming up from deep minus-degrees, the temperature of the ice reaches 0° C. It takes a while now, until all the ice has melted and until it has, the temperature doesn't change. The now added amount of warmth is also called solidification-warmth, because, in the reverse process of course, it is once again released.

The following additional heat, once again achieves a temperature increase. It goes on like this up to 100° C. Of all substances, water needs almost the most evaporation-heat, more than 5 times as much as from 0 to 100° C. It is perhaps, more understandable, if one considers the fact that the H0-molecules now take up 1.700 times as much space. Only after all the water has evaporated, does the added heat again cause a rise in temperature.

So, at this point we can again describe the complete process, this time from the molecular aspect. From the absolute rigidity at -273° C, the molecule-movement is set off by the added warmth- or energy. The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules oscillate, always at the same amplitude and all together, covering all directions.

The first peculiarity occurs at 0°C, when the molecules give up their solid structure in favour of a less solid, indeed still existing structure. The second change occurs at 100° C, where the molecules finally leave the fomation. The difference is significant because basically, water, always obeying the laws of gravity, gathers at the bottom of a container, whereby steam, will fill the entire available space, regardless of how large it is. 09/13