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ABS (additional information)

green = brake power, blue = tractability, black = slip

Brake horse power

The brake horse power (green) describes, how much energy from the wheel brakes plus the combination wheel/street is transferred into thermal energy per time. Beyond 50% slip, the braking power declines with increasing braking force. Vehicles exhibit their maximum and therefore most efficient braking force at 50% slip. If the wheel could be held at this 50% slip mark, the braking distance would be minimized.


The manoeuvrability (blue) states how well the vehicle follows the steering wheel position. This value is zero, if the vehicle does not react at all, for example, if the slip is 100%.


The dotted red lines (around 20% and 35% slip) state the lower and upper adjustment border for ABS systems. It will activate whenever the braking pedal is pushed too strongly under the current circumstances. At around 35% slip the brake force is released, shortly below it is kept steady, below 20% slip it returns to maximum force.
To ensure manoeuvrability in any situation, not the full braking force is used. Due to the slowness (around 10 adjustments per second) of the system, a large adjustment interval is necessary. With a faster system, the lower adjustment border could be moved upwards.(for example with the fully electric brake.) If additional informations, for example from a steer angle sensor, could be taken into account, the full braking force could be used.

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