A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z


Wheel change
Save Energy

Ganz neu ...

Ganz neu ...

Veh. Developement
Hist. of Science
Car Developer
Electr. History
History of IT
Oldtimer Terms
Romain Coach
First Motor Vehicle
Stream Carriage
Steam Engine 1
Steam Engine 2
Steam Engine 3
Steam Locomotive
Atm. Gas Engine
Otto Engine
Ettore Bugatti
First Truck
First V-engine
First Motor Vehicle
Robert Bosch 1
Robert Bosch 2
First Four-wheeler
Rudolf Diesel 1
Rudolf Diesel 2
Diesel engine
Pas. Car Diesel Eng.
First Motorcycle
Lighting History
Rotary Engine
Jet Engine
Stirling Engine
Classic V-8-engine
Classic 5-in-line Engine
Centrifugal Governor
Contact-breaker Point
First Fuel Pump
Var. Transmission
Single-circuit Brake
Pendulum Suspension
Front-wheel Drive

  Development of Vehicles

A lot of small inventions have had a larger impact on the vehicle development than single big inventions; this saying has rather gained importance troughout history.

2017 Ban on refrigerant R 134a
2016Mandatory ABS for motorcycles
2014Euro 6 for car engines, tyre pressure control for new vehicles (EU)
2012Tyre pressure control for new models (EU)
2011Daytime running light for new vehicles (D), prohibition refrigerant R134a for new vehicle types, mandatory ESP (USA), 100 million small-block V-8 (GM)
2009 Euro 5 for passenger car-diesel-engines
2006 OBD for commercial vehicles, inspection scheduler in database (Mazda), infrared-vision by night in series (Honda, Jap)
2005 Euro 4 for passenger car Diesel-engines, max. 50 ppm sulphur in fuels (EU), digital tachograph (Nfz + Busse, Ger), electronical tyre pressure control obligatory in the US, series small car with Hybrid drive (Suzuki, Jap), Airbus 380, 3 l/100km/800 Passagiere
2004 EOBD for Diesel-engines, Euro 2 motorcycles, buckling up in busses required, lane keeping support enters the middle class (Citroen, F), convertible with sun-roof (BMW - Mini), motorcycle with electronic shock absorber control (BMW, Ger), BMW K 1200
2003 Vehicle for road and water with 52 km/h top speed (Aquada, GB), vehicle manages more than 3000 km with 1 l fuel on average, Concorde stopped
2002 Flat tire-emergency running (Conti, Ger), camera in series-vehicle (Nissan, Jap), motorcycle with top speed of 299 km/h, fuel cell-vehicle with certification (Honda, Jap), prototype of the 1 L-car (using 1 Liter of fuel on 100 km) (VW, Ger)
2001 OBD for petrol-passenger cars in Europe, Common Rail with Piezo-injectors, variable mechanical valve lift (BMW, Ger), eletronically operated brake (Bosch, DB), electronical wiper drive, carbon brake disc, radio with MP3, telephone and Internet connection (Becker, Ger), Japanese electronical vehicle with Li-Ionen-accumulator, 440 kW, 311 km/h, 4 axles
2000 Euro 3 for passenger car Diesel-engines, maximum of 350 ppm sulphur in Diesel-fuel (EU), GPS alo for civilians, Diesel-particulate filter (Peugeot, F), in Germany around one-third Diesel-engines (Ger)
1999 Bi-xenon-light (Bosch, Ger), vehicle with Mach 1 enabling 1220 km/h jet-propelled, 16 l/sec. (Green, GB)
1998 Pump injectors for passenger car Diesel-engines (VW, Ger), headlight levelling (Europe), window-airbag (sidebag), broad-band lambda oxygen sensor, Haldex clutch, 175 PS-series-motorcycle with a top-speed of almost 300 km/h (Suzuki, Jap), fusion Daimler + Chrysler, Lamborghini -> VW, Bentley -> VW
1997 High pressure Diesel injection Common Rail (Bosch, Fiat), petrol-direct injection (Mitsubishi, Jap), OBD II for Diesel-engines (US), standard vehicle with hybrid drive, distinct glas for lamp lenses, out of the center staggered crankshaft (Toyota, Jap), hydrogen-fuel cell-vehicles (DB, Ger) Toyota Prius I, empty weight + 75 kg for imaginary driver (EU), 100-PS-limitation for motorcycles revoked
1996 Sequential gearbox
1995 Electron. immobilisation system, side-airbag, belt force limiters
1994 OBD II for petrol passenger cars (US), navigation system, plastic lenses, complete body from aluminum (Audi, Ger), day-permanent light (GM, US), nickel-metalhydrid-accumulator (GM, US)
1993 Electronical stability program, adjustable camshaft, four valves Diesel-engines, exhaust emission inspections also for Diesel-engines in Germany (AU), EU-norms for fuels, immobilisation system against theft
1992 Catalyst required (Ger), Diesel with direct injection and variable guide blades (VW, Ger)
1991 OBD (US), Xenon light, complete body from aluminum alloy (Honda, Jap), anti-lock braking system required for busses in Germany, vehicles with CAN-Bus (Bosch), variable length of intake manifold (racing engine, Mazda)
1990 Self-diagnostics, emergency running program, passenger car Diesel engine in series with catalytic converter (VW, Ger), development of fuel-cells for vehicles (DB), electro-vehicles (GM,US)
1989 Standard tyre pressure control (Porsche), rain sensor, automatic roll bar, chargers prohibited in formula 1
1988 Stepped reflector (Hella, Ger), series-passenger car Diesel-engines with direct injection (Bosch, Fiat) and charger (Audi, Ger), Torsen-differential gear
1987 Electronical Diesel-control (BMW, Bosch), Mono-Jetronic, electronical pressure force regulator for wipers
1986 Engine management <-> control automatic transmission, electronic differential lock, electronical accelerator pedal, tow-line safety steering (Audi, Ger)
1985 Regular exhaust emission inspections for petrol passenger cars in Germany, CAN-bus technology (Controller Area Network) (Bosch, Intel), standard anti-lock braking system (Ford, Ger), electronical Diesel injection control
1984 Idle-speed governor, Comprex-charger in series (Opel, Ger)
1983 Fully electronical ignition (Bosch, Ger), triple-axle ellipsoid headlamp, motorcycle with longitudinal four-cylinder engine (BMW, Ger), Mazda-rotary engine with charger
1982 Anti-knock for petrol-engine (Bosch, Ger), KE-Jetronic , electronical ignition with mechanical high-tension distributer (Bosch, Ger), digital speedometer
1981 Unleaded fuel, catalytic converter, hot wire-air mass flow sensor, digital engine electronics, cylinder cut-out (GM. US), carbon fibre in formula 1 (McLaren/Lotus, GB)
1980 Airbag and seat belt tightener (DB, Ger)
1979 Injection and ignition characteristic diagram -> Motronic (Bosch, Ger)
1978 Anti-lock braking system (Bosch, Ger), passenger car-charge-Dieselengine (DB, Ger)
1977 Gas turbines-hybrid-prototype (Toyota, Jap), hot-galvanized steel panel (Porsche, Ger), pneumatical valve spring (Renault, F), 510 km/h for water vehicle (Worby, Aus)
1976 Lambda oxygen sensor (Bosch, Ger), mech.-hydr. petrol injection, fully covered series motorcycle (BMW,Ger), passenger aircraft reaching double the speed of sound (Concorde, F/GB)
1975 Rear window wiper
1974 Transistor coil ignition system and L-Jetronic (Bosch, Ger), radio traffic-information-system, single point injection (GM, US)
1973 Mech.-hydraul. injection (K-Jetronic), electron. injection (L-Jetronic), plastic fuel tank (VW Passat Variant), 379 km/h (Diesel, Snyder, US)
1972 First standard type six cylinder motorcycle (Benelli, I)
1971 Halogen light H4 (Bosch), patent for Airbag (DB), intermittent wiper, sunk door handles (Citroen, F), Le-Mans-double success (Porsche 917)
1970 Range Rover (first SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle)), Mini-all-wheel-vehicle (Suzuki, Jap), Le-Mans-triple success (Porsche 917), 1001 km/h (rocket engine, Gabelich, US)
1969 On the moon Apollo 11 (Armstrong, US), motorcycle-disc brakes in series(Jap), mechanical anti-lock-braking-system, try-outs with Airbags (DB, Ger)
1968 Head-rest (DB, Ger), first emission restraints (California, US), full beam to follow steering wheel movements (Citroen, F), Jumbo-Jet (Boeing, US)
1967 Multi-point injection (first Bendix, later Bosch), children's seats (Storchenmühle, Ger), energy absorbing steering column, aluminum-tutular space frame (Porsche, Ger), rotary engine in the Ro80
1966 Ventilated disc brake (Porsche 911 S) in series, rear fog lamp, Racing-charged engines (Indianapolis, US), Mini triple winner Rallye Monte Carlo, Honda motorcycles win 5 World championship titels
1965 Industrial-wind-tunnel (VW, Ger), possibilty of driving without the usage of arms (Franz, Ger), 960 km/h (Breedlove, US), tyre-test stand topping 1360 km/h (Goodyear, US)
1964 Direct injection for truck-Dieselengines, asymmetrical wheel tread patterns (Pirelli, I), Ford Mustang, double-disc piston engine in the Mazda-prototype, Mini wins Rallye Monte Carlo
1963 Forged alloy rims (Fuchs, Porsche 911), four-wheel drive (GM, US)
1962 Dual-circuit brake (GM, US), cambelt for driving the camshaft (Glas, Ger), simulation of crashes + charged-petrol engine (GM, US)
1961 OHC-engine with cambelt (Glas, Ger), seat belts (Daimler-Benz, Ger), rod from titanium (Porsche, Ger)
1959 Vehicle with rotary engine (Wankel, Ger), transistor coil ignition system, safe body (DB, Ger), windscreen washer
1958 Dieselengine with double overhead camshaft (Mercedes Benz), electron. petrol injection (Bendix, US)
1957 Asymmetrical dipped beam, body from plastic (Lotus, GB)
1956 Porsche wins Targa Florio
1955 Carbon fibre with aligned crystal atructures, 61 Mio. vehicles in Northern America
1954 Rotary engine (Wankel, Ger), mech.-hydraul. petrol-direct injection for the 300 SL, hydropneumatical suspension, spot welding with aluminum sheets (Panhard, F), plastic body parts (GM, US), Porsche/Fuhrmann-engine, 4 cyl.-Boxer with double overhead camshaft, desmodromical valve control (DB, D
1953 Passenger car-Dieselengine with side combustion chamber (Borgward, Fiat), 12-Volt-System (Delco Remy), brake servo (GM, US)
1952 Charger-Dieselengine (Saurer, Ch), two-stroke-petrol-direct injection (Gutbrod, Ger), hydraulical power steering (Cadillac,US), Racing-Diesel (Cummins, Indianapolis), 244 km/h (Rover-Gas turbine, GB)
1951 Patent for crash absorbing zones (Barényi/Mercedes), hydraulical petrol fuel injection pump (Bosch, GutbroGer), obligatory TÜV (technical control association)-general inspection (Ger), Avus re-build, register-charger (Alfa, I), DKW 500 with 290 km/h (Herz, Ger)
1950 Winter-tyre, gas turbine-vehicle (Rover), formela-1, jet aircraft-tests (US)
1949 Hardtop convertible (Cadillac, US)
1948 Torque converter (Buick, US), tyres with steel radials (Michelin, F), tubeless wheel (Goodrich, US)
1946 Disc brake in series (Chrysler, US), Velosolex (bicycle with auxiliary engine, F), patent on radial-ply tyres (Michelin, F)
1945 Aluminum-forging in the body (F), 24 Mio. vehicles in Northern-America
1942 Silicone caoutchouc (for larger temperature ranges)
1941 Priming by dipping (Opel, Ger), try-outs with mechanical anti-lock systems
1940 Army-Jeep (Willys, US), gearbox with double clutch (Franke, Ger), motorbike side-car combination with all-wheel drive (BMW, Ger), maximum speed almost 600 km/h
1939 Gas turbine (Brown-Boveri), five-speed gear standard (Lancia), hydraulically operated automatic transmission (Oldsmobil, US), motorcycle-frame from plastic (DKW, Ger), 156 km/h (Hanomag-Diesel)
1938 Charged-Diesel-lorry-engine (Saurer, Ch), TÜV-(technical control association) starts examining all vehicles on a regular basis in Germany
1937 Aero-engine with petrol injection (DB, Ger), steering column-mounted gear (Pontiac, GM)
1936 Diesel-passenger car with side combustion chamber (DB, Ger), plastic body, Crashtests (DKW, Ger), cooling thermostat, manual direction indicator (GM, US), series car with headlamp retractors (Cord, US), 256 km/h (Diesel, Eyston, US), patent for anti-stall (Bosch, Ger)
1935 Self-adjusting brake (DB, Ger), self supporting fully steel body (Opel, Ger), rear wheel suspension (Moto Guzzi, I), hydr. dampers in front (BMW, Ger), charger-Dieselloco (Ger)
1934 Self supporting body in large series (Opel), Maybach (charged-Diesel 650 PS, Ger), rollover tests (GM, US)
1933 Tests for passive accident prevention and no-draft ventilation (GM, US)
1932 Bilux lamp standard
1931 Torsion bar spring (patent Porsche, Ger), streamlined vehicle (patent Everling, Ger), transmission-synchronization (ZF, Ger), fog lamps (Bosch, Ger)
1930 Fuel filter (Bosch), petrol injection in racing motorbike (Moto Guzzi, I), sixteen-cylinder engine (GM, US), top speed record around 270 km/h
1929 Economical manufacture of synthetical caoutchouc (Bock, Ger), standard front wheel drive (Cord, US), electrically operated wiper (Baron Rothschild, US), Diesel-engine passenger car (Cummins, US), vehicle with V12-engine (Maybach, Ger), chrome plating (GM, US)
1928 Transmission-synchronization (Kettering, US), accelerator pump (carburetor), 238 km/h (rocket-propelled, Opel, Ger), patent for mechanical Antilock braking system (Ger), load sensing valve for passenger cars (Ger), DKW (Dampfkraftwagen) (steam powered vehicle)
1927 Deep-drawn panel (Krupp, Ger), transatlantic flight (Lindbergh, US), opening of the Nürburgring, Diesel-injection pump in series (Bosch), mouldable material, patent for electr. valve operation
1926 Hydraulical four-wheel brake (ATE), in-line-eight cylinder in series (Horch), front wheel drive with constant-velocity joints (Tracta, F), electrical wiper (Bosch, Ger), patent for streamlined-body (Kamm, Ger), safety-glas with wire inlet (US), Lorraine-Dietrich wins Le Mans
1925 Bilux-bulb (Bosch, Ger), carburetor with petrol injection (Bendix/Stromberg, US), Lorraine-Dietrich wins Le Mans, front driven racing vehicle (Miller, US)
1924 Anti-knocking additions for fuel (GM, US), bifilar bulb (Bilux), charger for two-stroke-ship-Dieselengines (BBC), assembly line in Germany (Opel Laubfrosch), motorbike with 90°-in-line engine (Remor, I)
1923 Lorry with Diesel engine (Benz-MAN, Ger), balloon-wheels with Cord fabric, standard air brake
1922 Cooling-water control, tyres with steel wire (Dunlop), Diesel-passenger car (Peugeot-Tartais, F), independent wheel suspension, self-supporting body (Lancia)
1921 Roots blower in series production (Daimler, Ger), audible warning system (Bosch, Ger), Avus (racing track, Berlin), tetraethyl lead against knocking (Kettering, GM)
1919 Hydraulical brake (Lockheed, US), Diesel engine (Cummins, US), coil (Duesenberg, US)
1916 V12-engine (Packard, US), pneumatically driven wipers (US)
1915 Dipped beam (Bosch, Ger), V8-engine (Cadillac, US)
1914 Starter battery, US-V8 (Cadillac, US)
1913 Assembly line Ford (T-model), full-steel body (Dodge, US), alternator, voltage regulator and lighting system (Bosch, Ger), charged Diesel-loco
1912 Fully synthetical tyre (Bayer, Ger), corrosion-free high-grade steel, Diesel-loco (Ger), electrical starter (Europa, Bosch), starter + lighting system in series production (Cadillac, US), Carozzeria Bertone (I), Fiat (300 bhp) 160 km/h
1911 Founding of a material laboratory (GM, US), manufacturing of hydraulical dampers (US), electrical starter (Kettering, Cadillac, US), top speed 228 km/h (Blitzen-Benz, 21 Liter, 200 PS, Burman, US), 500 miles Indianapolis, race Monte Carlo, Benelli (I)
1910 Liquid cooling instead of thermosiphon cooling, charged two-stroke-aero-engine (Murray-Willat), coil ignition system with centrifugal advance device, starter (Kettering, US), lead acid battery, four-wheel brake and speedometer in series production (Ford, US), 500 miles (Indianapolis, US), top speed record ca. 200 km/h
1909 Four-wheel brake (Fraschini, I), 205 km/h (Benz 21,5 l, 200 bhp), Harley-Davidson 45°-V-engine, invention of the side combustion chamber (Dieselengine), six-valve-engine (Peugeot, F), patent for manufacturing synthetical caoutchouc (Hofmann, Ger), type-certification (TÜV) for vehicles in Germany
1908Electrical lighting system
1907 Adjustable steering column (Buick, US), Tourist Trophy (Isle of Man, GB), Peking-Paris (2 months)
1906Grand Prix (F), supercharger-racing vehicle (US)
1905 Turbo charger, charge air cooler (Büchi, Ch), G-charger (Creux, F), removable rim (Continental, D), patent for starter (Bossu, F), battery only for illumination of the interior (Cadillac, US), floating motorbike fork (Bianchi, I), touring car-racing (Landsberg, Ger)
1904 Transversely mounted in-line engine (Christie, US), black (due to additional soot) air-wheels with profile (Continental, Ger), patent for four-wheel brake, 168 km/h (Barras, B), spring-mounted front wheel motorbike-fork (Peugeot, F), radio detection prevents boat-collisions (Hülsmeier, Ger)
1903 Manually operated windscreen wiper (Mary Anderson, US), Solitude-Racing track (Stuttgart), journey from coast to coast (Jackson, US), 139 km/h (Wurgis, US), aero-engine (Flyer I, brothers Wright, US)
1902 High-tension magneto ignition, spark plug (Honold - Bosch, Ger), patent eddy current-speedometer (Schulze, Ger), patent for front-wheel drive (Schwenke, Ger), light rigid axle (De Dion, F), busses, commercial vehicle with front-wheel drive and tilt device, drum brake (Renault, F), disc brake, four-wheel drive (Spyker, NL), speedometer (Schulze, Ger)
1901 Fire brigade equipped with petrol engine vehicles.
1900 Vehicles with cone clutch, gear wheel transmission, chain drive, ball bearings, engine from aluminum and magnesium (Mercedes, Ger), bevel steering column with steering wheel (Panhard and Levassor, F), top speed around 100 km/h
1899 Two-stroke-Diesel engine (MAN, Ger), externally acting brake (Maybach, Ger), friction clutch (Horch, Ger), aluminum-body (Dürrkopp, Ger), band brake with drum, air wheel lasting around 500 km (Continental, Ger), more than 100 km/h (Jenatzy, F)
1898 Try-outs with petrol injection on stationary engines (Deutz, Ger), high tension magnet (De Dion, F), patent for cylinder cut-out
1897 Diesel engine operative (MAN, Ger) 20 PS, efficiency 26%, wheel hub-electrical engine (Porsche, Ger), 54 km/h
1896 Automobile with air-wheels (Leon-Bollee, Michelin, F), air-wheels (Goodrich, US), lorry (Daimler, Maybach, Ger), Boxer-engine (Benz, Ger), vehicle manufactured in GB (Lanchester), end of Red-Flag-Acts, London-Brighton-race, vehicle from Henry Ford (US)
1895 (Racing-)vehicle with air-wheels (Michelin, F), "tube"-cooling (Maybach), patent for hydraulic brake (Mayer, Ger)
1894 Motorbike (Hildebrandt, Ger), concept of air-tyres for automobiles (Michelin, F)
1893 Axle-pivot steering in vehicle (Daimler, Maybach, Ger), nozzle-carburetor (Maybach), patent for engine (Diesel), automobile (Gebr. Duryea, US)
1892 Patent for Diesel-engine (Rudolf Diesel, Ger)
1891 Front engine (Peugeot, Panhard/Levassor, F), Paris - Brest - Paris (Peugeot)
1889 Four-gear wheel transmission (Maybach, Ger), four-wheel motor vehicle (Maybach, Daimler, Ger)
1888 Air tyre for bicycles (Dunlop, GB), V-engine, combustion engine driving boats/air-ships, (Daimler, Ger), Berta Benz manages 180 km with the threewheeler.
1887 Break ignition (magneto ignition) from Bosch, four-wheel motor vehicle (Daimler, Ger)
1886 Patent for Benz-threewheeler, four-stroke engine in boat (Daimler, Maybach, Ger), vehicle with two-cylinder engine (Henry Ford, US)
1885 Engine driven threewheeler (Benz, Ger), motor bike with four-stroke engine (Daimler, Maybach, Ger), jet-carburetor with closed float chamber (Maybach, Ger), uncontrolled glow tube ignition, charged engine (Benz, Ger)
1884 Stationary engine with petrol injection (Spiel, Ger)
1883 Fast running four-stroke-petrol engine with glow tube ignition (Daimler, Maybach, Ger)
1879 Principle of the synthetical caoutchouc (Bouchardat), stationary two-stroke engine (Benz, Ger), two-stroke engine running on gas (Dugald Clerk, GB), patent on motor car with internal combustion (Baldwin, US), electrical loco (Siemens, Ger)
1876 Four-stroke-illuminating gas-combustion engine (Otto), ca. 15% efficiency
1875 Surface-carburetor (Maybach, Ger), ammonia-refrigerating machine (Linde, Ger)
1873 Steamcar with axle-pivot steering and independent wheel suspension (Bollée, F)
1867 Engine with 9% efficiency (Otto - Langen, world exhibition Paris), bicycle (Veloziped) with chain drive
1866 Steam boiler-control association (TÜV, Ger)
1864 Internal combustion engine without compression (Otto, Ger), standardization of screws, threads and nuts (Sellers, US)
1863 Vehicle with gas engine (Lenoir, F)
1862 (Unstable) four-stroke engine (Nikolaus August Otto, Ger), four-stroke principle (Patent - Alphonse Beau de Rochas)
1860 Two-stroke-illuminating gas aspiration engine, twin piston, high-tension ignition, 1-2 kW, 1-3% efficiency (Étienne Lenoir, F-B), roots-water pump
1859 Crude oil-drilling (Drake, US)
1856 Illuminating gas engine with valve-control and water-cooling (Barsanti, Matteucci, I)
1854 Pedal crank for bicycle
1844 Patent on air-wheels, tube, valve (Thomson, GB)
1840 The first passengers to travel across the Atlantic (Cunard, GB)
1839 Discovery of the vulcanisation (Charles Goodyear, US), prototype of a fuel-cell (Grove, GB)
1835 Railroad from Nürnbeg to Fürth (Ger)
1833 "Petrol" from benzol-acid (Mitscherlich, Ger)
1829 Steam locomotive (Stephensen, GB)
1823 Rubberized, water- und air proof fabric (Macintosh)
1822 Bus with steam drive (Griffith, GB)
1816 Stirlingmotor (GB)
1810 Axle-pivot steering for carriages (Ackermann, Ger)
1807 Patent for passenger car (Rivaz, F), steam ship (Fulton, GB)
1801 Vehicle with steam engine drive (Trevithick, GB)
1799 Gasengine, electrical ignition (Lebon)
1768 Steam engine (James Watt, GB)
1765 Threewheeler with steam engine (Cugnot, F)
1761 Possibility for determination of degree of longitude on the open sea with very precise clock (John Harrison, GB)
1745 Natural caoutchouc in Europe
1740 Bimetal, roller bearing (Harrison, GB)
1733 Hot-air balloon (brothers Mongolfier, F)
1712 External steam engine (Thomas Newcomen)
1690 High pressure-steam engine (Denis Papin, F-GB)
1678 Theory of an engine with internal combustion (Huygens)
1665 Discovery of crude oil
100 v.Chr. the simple steam engine (Heron, Gr)
Approx. 2300 v.Chr. the spoke wheel
Approx. 3500 v.Chr. invention of the wheel (Sumerer) not otherwise present in nature.