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Video History-Suspension 1
Video History-Suspension 2
Video History-Suspension 3
Video History-Suspension 4
Video History-Suspension 5
Video History-Suspension 6
Video History-Suspension 7

Video Undercarriage 1
Video Undercarriage 2
Video Steering Wheel 1
Video Steering Wheel 2
Video Steering Lock
Video Steering
Video Safety Steering
Video Rack Pinion Steering
Video Steering Ratio 1
Video Steering Ratio 2
Video Steering Ratio 3
Video Ball Steering
Video Worm Roller Steering
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Video Electr. Power Steer. 1
Video Electr. Power Steer. 2
Video Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Video Torque (power steer.)
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video Finger Steering
Video One-piece Track Rod
Video Four Wheel Steering 1
Video Four Wheel Steering 2
Video Four Wheel Steering 3
Video Dry Joint
Video History
Video Suspension control 1
Video Wheel positions
Video Suspension
Video Spring systems
Video Electr. Air Suspension
Video Center of Gravity
Video Oblique/lateral drift angle
Video Elasto-kinematics
Video Elk Test
Video Wheel Bearing 1
Video Wheel Bearing 2
Video Wheel Bearing 3
Video Wheel Bearing 4
Video Ind. pulse sensor
Video Wheel sensor 2
Video Transversal Axis
Video Suspension Carrier
Video Below View
Video Adj. suspension
Video Stabilizer 1
Video Stabilizer 2
Video Double-wishbone 1
Video Double-wishbone 2
Video Double-wishbone 3
Video Air suspension truck
Video McPherson Strut 1
Video McPherson Strut 2
Video McPherson Strut 3
Video McPherson Strut 4
Video Trailing Arm
Video Twist-beam Rear Axle
Video Space Arms
Video Multilink Axle
Video Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Video Rear-wheel Drive
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
Video One-arm Swing. Fork
Video Formula-3 Racing Car
Video Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Video Torson Crank Suspen.
Video DeDion Axle 1
Video DeDion Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 1
Video Rigid Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 3
Video Rigid Axle 4
Video Rigid Axle 5
Video Self steering axle
Video Track rod joint
Video Springs
Video Coil Spring 1
Video Coil Spring 2
Video Coil Spring 3
Video Leaf Spring
Video Torsion Bar Spring
Video Rubber Suspension
Video Hydropn. Suspension
Video Air Suspension 1
Video Air Suspension 2
Video Shock Absorber 1
Video Shock Absorber 2
Video Shock Absorber 3
Video Shock Absorber 4
Video Shock Absorber 5
Video Single-tube Damper 1
Video Single Tube Damper 2
Video Double-tube Damper
Video Shock Absorber Piston
Video Friction Absorber
Video Tyres
Video Wheel Positions

Video Tyre Calculation
Video Inch -> mm
Video Slip
Video Axle Load Distrib.
Video Payload Distrib.
Video Roller Resistance 2

Video Wheel suspension 1
Video Wheel suspension 2
Video Wheels 1
Video Suspension 1
Video Suspension 2
Video Suspension 5
Video Steering 1
Video Steering 2

          A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

  History Suspension 7

Previous page

The way that energy storage functions can be well explained by using a spring as an example. It takes in the energy when being compressed, then gives it out straight away by expanding again. Of course, depending on the type of spring, the amount of post-oscillations will vary. The multiple-layer leaf-spring, because of the friction between the leaves, will come to rest very quickly.

Those who have observed a car fitted with torsion bar springing and having no damper, will know, that even the slightest impulse is enough to render the car completely out of control. Whereby, those mentioned already, are two types of steel springs. In addition, there is also the coil-spring, at this point we'll emphasize for the last time, that of course, the coil-spring is only strained when under pressure.

Steel of course, together with elastic rubber, belongs in in the category of solid materials, quite the opposite to the gases. Liquids, because they are (almost completely) incompressible, are not suited for springing. When one speaks of a hydro-pneumatic suspension, what is actually meant is, a gas-suspension with height correction and damping by means of hydraulic oil. In the category steel-springs, the torsion bar has become very rare (an exception e.g., is the previous Mercedes M-Class), they only remain as stabilizers.

No, leaf springs have not become extinct in light vehicles, they have perhaps, been pushed into the area of reasonably priced systems (e.g., the VW-Caddy). In trucks, by the way, they are in competion to the much more expensive air-suspension.

These articles about the suspension, actually deal with the dynamics of vehicle movement, indeed, to keep things ordered, excluding the longitidinal dynamics. Apart from the movement around the three main axes, the oscillations, which belong to the vertical dynamics, must also be kept in check. Important: In a number of vehicles the center of gravity is found in varying places, the less the position is fixed, the more they can be loaded. The chassis designers can make their jobs simpler by going for a harder springing or damping.

The values given by e.g., a suspension test-bench, show that one can overdo things as well. The rear wheel shown here, has one bar more than the recommended pressure. It hopped around so much, that a sheet of paper could be passed, in steps of course, between the wheel and the vibrator-plate. The same phenomenon can be observed when the dampers are adjusted too hard. 12/13               Top of page               Index
2001-2015 Copyright programs, texts, animations, pictures: H. Huppertz - E-Mail
Translator: Don Leslie - Email:

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