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Video History-Suspension 1
Video History-Suspension 2
Video History-Suspension 3
Video History-Suspension 4
Video History-Suspension 5
Video History-Suspension 6
Video History-Suspension 7

Video Undercarriage 1
Video Undercarriage 2
Video Steering Wheel 1
Video Steering Wheel 2
Video Steering Lock
Video Steering
Video Safety Steering
Video Rack Pinion Steering
Video Steering Ratio 1
Video Steering Ratio 2
Video Steering Ratio 3
Video Ball Steering
Video Worm Roller Steering
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Video Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Video Electr. Power Steer. 1
Video Electr. Power Steer. 2
Video Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Video Torque (power steer.)
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video Finger Steering
Video One-piece Track Rod
Video Four Wheel Steering 1
Video Four Wheel Steering 2
Video Four Wheel Steering 3
Video Dry Joint
Video History
Video Suspension control 1
Video Wheel positions
Video Suspension
Video Spring systems
Video Electr. Air Suspension
Video Center of Gravity
Video Oblique/lateral drift angle
Video Elasto-kinematics
Video Elk Test
Video Wheel Bearing 1
Video Wheel Bearing 2
Video Wheel Bearing 3
Video Wheel Bearing 4
Video Ind. pulse sensor
Video Wheel sensor 2
Video Transversal Axis
Video Suspension Carrier
Video Below View
Video Adj. suspension
Video Stabilizer 1
Video Stabilizer 2
Video Double-wishbone 1
Video Double-wishbone 2
Video Double-wishbone 3
Video Air suspension truck
Video McPherson Strut 1
Video McPherson Strut 2
Video McPherson Strut 3
Video McPherson Strut 4
Video Trailing Arm
Video Twist-beam Rear Axle
Video Space Arms
Video Multilink Axle
Video Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Video Rear-wheel Drive
Video Electr. Stab. Program
Video ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
Video One-arm Swing. Fork
Video Formula-3 Racing Car
Video Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Video Torson Crank Suspen.
Video DeDion Axle 1
Video DeDion Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 1
Video Rigid Axle 2
Video Rigid Axle 3
Video Rigid Axle 4
Video Rigid Axle 5
Video Self steering axle
Video Track rod joint
Video Springs
Video Coil Spring 1
Video Coil Spring 2
Video Coil Spring 3
Video Leaf Spring
Video Torsion Bar Spring
Video Rubber Suspension
Video Hydropn. Suspension
Video Air Suspension 1
Video Air Suspension 2
Video Shock Absorber 1
Video Shock Absorber 2
Video Shock Absorber 3
Video Shock Absorber 4
Video Shock Absorber 5
Video Single-tube Damper 1
Video Single Tube Damper 2
Video Double-tube Damper
Video Shock Absorber Piston
Video Friction Absorber
Video Tyres
Video Wheel Positions

Video Tyre Calculation
Video Inch -> mm
Video Slip
Video Axle Load Distrib.
Video Payload Distrib.
Video Roller Resistance 2

Video Wheel suspension 1
Video Wheel suspension 2
Video Wheels 1
Video Suspension 1
Video Suspension 2
Video Suspension 5
Video Steering 1
Video Steering 2

          A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

  History Suspension 5

Previous page

Basically, one had already achieved a certain ideal right at the beginning of the automobile era. The rigid axle wasn't actually that bad at all, it kept the wheel at a camber of 0, as long as the other wheel remained on the road. Unfortunately however, the two wheels were not independent of each other and for a driven-axle, the additional partial weight of the cardan shaft, the final drive and the half-axles was, by no means ideal.

In the history of the suspension, as soon as one got rid of the rigid axles, the annoying problem with the camber started. Have a look at a VW-Beetle which has '00' at the end of it's type description. When, shortly before a curve the springs are extended, it goes into the curve with a positive camber. One might say, the danger of tipping over is built in. With the introduction of the radial- or belted tyre, this mal function was more pronounced because these tyres stayed more doggedly in track.

'What is to be done?' said Zeus. As soon as the wheels are individually suspended, at least one joint is needed in their vicinity, to decouple the tipping of the coachwork from that of the wheels. Should the wheel be driven, an additional homo-kinetic joint belongs in the drive shaft as well. Thus, the wheels develop their own wheel-travel kinematics. Such demands can't be met by, e.g., the longitudinal link- or the torsion beam axle. One reason for the introduction of the multi-link suspension in front-wheel drives.

Apart from it's own rotation, how then, does a wheel behave when the springs are compressed? For this it must be given a wheel guide, in the simplest case, a suspension strut, well known as a McPherson strut. First of all, we would like to install this doubly strained damper vertical to the road surface, something which doesn't happen in reality of course. This is assisted by a lower lying wishbone, whose steering axis, to keep it simple, will be mounted parallel to the vehicle longitudnal axis.

We'll exclude influences from the steering, which certainly do play a part. Now we can observe, that a thus guided wheel, from the extended spring condition up to the horizontal position of the wishbone, takes on an increasingly negative camber, regardless of whether this moves from positive to zero or from zero to negative. With further compression of the spring, it once again moves towards positive. Looking at it with this example in mind, the manufacturer must ensure that when the spring compresses, the wishbone does not travel above the horizontal.

The shock absorber however, is thus mounted that the top end slants towards the rear, so that the caster, with increasing spring compression, also increases. The same thing occurs with track-spreading and a negative steering roll radius, if the shock absorber is mounted with the top end slanting slightly inwards. Thereby, I have assumed a swivel axis on the wheel, which connects the lower ball-joint with the center of the upper dome bearing. 06/12

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2001-2015 Copyright programs, texts, animations, pictures: H. Huppertz - E-Mail
Translator: Don Leslie - Email:

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