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Wheel change
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Change Wheels
History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Steering Wheel 1
Steering Wheel 2
Steering Lock
Steering 1
Steering 2
Safety Steering
Rack Pinion Steering
Steering Ratio 1
Steering Ratio 2
Steering Ratio 3
Ball Steering
Worm Roller Steering
Hydraulic Power Steer. 1
Hydraulic Power Steer. 2
Electr. Power Steer. 1
Electr. Power Steer. 2
Electr.-hydraulic Pump
Torque (power steer.)
Electr. Stab. Program
Finger Steering
One-piece Track Rod
Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Wheel positions
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elk Test
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4
Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 1
Wheel sensor 2
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Stabilizer 3
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
Air suspension truck
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4
Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5

Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Shock Absorber 1
Shock Absorber 2
Shock Absorber 3
Shock Absorber 4
Shock Absorber 5
Single-tube Damper 1
Single Tube Damper 2
Double-tube Damper
Shock Absorber Piston
Friction Absorber
Wheel Positions

Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Suspension 3
Suspension 4
Suspension 5
Suspension 6
Suspension 7
Suspension 8
Suspension 9
Suspension 10
Suspension 11
Suspension 12
Suspension 13
Suspension 14
Wheels 1
Wheels 2
Wheels 3
Wheels 4
Wheels 5
Wheels 6
Wheels 7
Wheels 8
Wheels 9
Wheels 10
Wheels 11
Wheels 12
Wheels 13
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 3
Carriage 4
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2
Steering 3
Steering 4

Elk Test


In 1997 the motor car industry was taken by surprise. A test procedure, actually only applied by Swedish testers, was suddenly the talk of the town. In the beginning Mercedes Benz did not wanted to admit it, however, deficiencies became evident which allowed a vehicle of the "A" class to tip over in certain driving situations. All of a sudden, a great deal of possibly self-proclaimed testers tried to induce this result with other vehicles as well. Some were astonishingly resistant. Mercedes however, drew thorough conclusions, and suspended, not only the "A" class, but also postponed the sales start of the Smart which showed similar symptoms.


Reduction of the tipping tendency:
Lower center of gravity
Road surface without grip
Narrow tyres
Small tyre diameter
Large wheel track
Hard suspension
Electronic Stability Program

In the meantime, the elk test has been somewhat standardised. At a speed of 65 km/h the lane must be abruptly changed. This simulates the avoiding swerve-manoeuvre to evade an elk, one does not want to collide with 300 - 400 kg of animal! Apart from that, the question of how strongly one brakes also plays a roll. Without ESP the brake cannot be fully depressed because then the vehicle would no longer be steerable.

Thus, ESP is important. Only vehicles vehicles without activated ESP - the last was the Dacia Logan (2006) - run the risk of failing the elk test. With these vehicles precaution is difficult. This can best of all, be seen in the Smart (figure 2). It is relatively narrow and high. It's wheels have been placed as wide apart as possible. In the beginning the suspension and vibration damping were also rock hard, in the meantime, they are however, somewhat milder. Particularly for a motor car like the Smart, one can imagine that, under unfavorable conditions, with multiple, abrupt lane changes, it could quite easily tip over onto it's side. One is - with other vehicles as well - not completely protected from tipping over. A sensible, and reasonable driving manner is still the best protection. ESP protects primarily by relatively early braking intervention. 05/10