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Suspension
History
Tyres
Wheel Positions
Change Wheels

History-Suspension 1
History-Suspension 2
History-Suspension 3
History-Suspension 4
History-Suspension 5
History-Suspension 6
History-Suspension 7

Damper 1 - generally
Damper 2 - single-tube
Damper 3 - notch
Damper 4 - double-tube
Damper 5 - piston
Damper 6 - electronic
Damper 7 - Magnetic Ride
Damper 8 - test
Damper 9 - test
Damper 10 - repair
Damper 11 - history

Steering 1 - generally
Steering 2 - city mode
Steering 3 - track rod
Steering 4 Rack Pinion
Steering 5 - ratio
Steering 6 - var. ratio
Steering 7 - by wire
Steering 8 - ball
Steering 9 - worm roller
Steering 10 - hydraulic
Steering 11 - hydraulic
Steering 12 - pump
Steering 13 - torque
Steering 14 - electric
Steering 15 - electric
Steering 16 - safety
Steering 17 - history

Four Wheel Steering 1
Four Wheel Steering 2
Four Wheel Steering 3

Steer. Wheel 1 - generally
Steer. Wheel 2 - buttons
Steer. Wheel 3 - lock

Undercarriage 1
Undercarriage 2
Pushrods
Electr. Stab. Program
Dry Joint
Suspension control 1
Center of Gravity
Oblique/lateral drift angle
Elasto-kinematics
Elk Test
Transversal Axis
Suspension Carrier
Below View
Adj. suspension
Wheel Bearing 1
Wheel Bearing 2
Wheel Bearing 3
Wheel Bearing 4

Ind. pulse sensor
Wheel sensor 1
Wheel sensor 2

Stabilizer 1
Stabilizer 2
Stabilizer 3
Double-wishbone 1
Double-wishbone 2
Double-wishbone 3
McPherson Strut 1
McPherson Strut 2
McPherson Strut 3
McPherson Strut 4

Trailing Arm
Twist-beam Rear Axle
Space Arms
Multilink Axle
Semi-trailing Arm Axle
Rear-wheel Drive
Air suspension truck
Electr. Stab. Program
ABS/ESP-Hydr. Unit
One-arm Swing. Fork
Formula-3 Racing Car
Pend. Wheel Suspen.
Torson Crank Suspen.
Rigid Axle 1
Rigid Axle 2
Rigid Axle 3
Rigid Axle 4
Rigid Axle 5

DeDion Axle 1
DeDion Axle 2
Self steering axle
Track rod joint
Springs
Coil Spring 1
Coil Spring 2
Coil Spring 3
Leaf Spring
Torsion Bar Spring
Rubber Suspension
Hydropn. Suspension
Air Suspension 1
Air Suspension 2
Spring systems
Electr. Air Suspension
Tyre Calculation
Inch -> mm
Slip
Axle Load Distrib.
Payload Distrib.
Roller Resistance 2

Wheel suspension 1
Wheel suspension 2
Suspension 3
Suspension 4
Suspension 5
Suspension 6
Suspension 7
Suspension 8
Suspension 9
Suspension 10
Suspension 11
Suspension 12
Suspension 13
Suspension 14
Wheels 1
Wheels 2
Wheels 3
Wheels 4
Wheels 5
Wheels 6
Wheels 7
Wheels 8
Wheels 9
Wheels 10
Wheels 11
Wheels 12
Wheels 13
Suspension 1
Suspension 2
Suspension 3
Carriage 4
Suspension 5
Steering 1
Steering 2
Steering 3
Steering 4



Damper 5 - Piston



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Assignment

Computer technology nowadays, makes it possible, to 'record' a once driven test track and to simulate it as often as one likes on a suitable testing facility. Perhaps the possibility of measuring the number of the piston movements during the operating life of an shock absorber will develop from this. The result should be an impressive number in favour of the wear-resistance of the piston and the cylinder wall.

Function

The highest temperatures are developed during the damping of oscillations, when the hydraulic oil flows through the piston-valves, or in the case of twin-chamber absorbers, the foot-valves. As a valve, an internal stack of laminated discs that requires different opening forces depending on whether its movement is upwards or downwards, serves the damper. Sometimes the stack is more- and sometimes less pre-tensioned through the fastening nut. In certain twin-chamber shock absorbers the pre-tension can even be altered from the outside by turning the nut when the damper is completely compressed. The nut is held by a suitable wrench on the cylinder floor. Please, keep in mind, the additional sealing between the piston and the cylinder wall by a type of piston ring.

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