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Alternator (wiring diagram)


In reality, the delivered DC-voltage of 12 V should always be around 14 V., and should vary as little as possible. Even at idling RPM, all the consumers should be supplied with sufficient current.


The most important part in this case, is marked in red and green. It is the armature (rotor). Because of this, the entire component is also called the claw-pole generator. It has six (red) magnetic north-poles on one side, and on the other side, six (green) magnetic south-poles. Through this construction method, the polarity is not changed only twice, but twelve times per rotation. At the end, a constant, high DC-voltage is developed.
Inside the two claw-halves, wire is wound into a large coil, both ends of which are connected to the two slip-rings (right at the top on the left). Through this coil the regulator can supply, depending on the consumption situation, more or less tension to the coil. Depending on this, the rotor can be turned easlier or harder by the engine and an electrical performance, dependent on the voltage regulator, is created. This (dark blue) coil in the rotor also provides for more or less circulating magnetism and thus, is called an 'exciter coil'. The circuit of the voltage regulator on the right, is shown with transistors, simple diodes, resistances and Zener diodes.
The electric current is created in the three coils (at an angle of 120°) around the rotor which are evenly distributed to the light blue stators. This is a star-shaped circuit, which means that one end of each winding is joined together with the others and the remaining ends are are led outwards. There is also the possibility of a star-shaped circuit in the generator, hereby, the three windings form a triangle and from the corners, three wires also lead to the diode plate. Through each of the three large-sized plus diodes at the top and minus diodes at the bottom, they are, in all cases, directly connected to the two battery poles on the far right. The regulator draws the necessary energy for the exciter windings through the remaining three smaller (exciter-) diodes.


The control lamp, shown between the plus-diode and the battery seems unimportant. It's job is to indicate the generator function on the dashboard. Should it break down, in veteran cars it could seriously impair the function of the generator. 01/11